Under the rules of the agreement, no nation could opt out of it for three years.
President Trump originally announced his intention to withdraw from the deal in the summer of 2017, shortly after he took office. Should Trump be defeated in November 2020, the next president could reenter the accord nearly immediately.
On Monday, Trump emphasized before supporters that he had fulfilled that promise.
"The withdrawal of the United States from the Paris Agreement means that the rest of us must further increase our cooperation,"' Krista Mikkonen, minister of environment for current European Council president Finland said in a statement on Tuesday.
He announced the U.S. would cease all implementation of non-binding elements of the agreement and begin negotiations either to re-enter the Paris accord or to have a new agreement "on terms that are fair to the United States, its businesses, its workers, its people, its taxpayers".
"By withdrawing from the Paris agreement, the Trump administration is showing that it cares neither about science nor economics". The World Health Organization estimates that we can expect 250,000 additional deaths worldwide per year starting in 2030 if nothing is done to address climate change.
French President Emmanuel Macron, who tried to persuade Trump to stay in the accord, lamented the decision.
"Even if we were to meet these initial goals of the Paris agreement, the sea level commitment from global warming will be significant", said study co-author Peter Clark from Oregon State University in the US. "We hope that the USA can take more responsibility and make more constructive contributions to the process of multilateral cooperation instead of adding negativity".
The governors of Maryland and MA are the alliance's sole Republicans.
But Trump, who took office in 2017, has pledged to turn back environmental regulations as states such as California and NY try to take stronger action on their own. The move has been criticized over its impact on global warming, and Democratic presidential contenders have promised to rejoin the agreement if they win. But if Trump prevails, his reelection would probably cement the long-term withdrawal of the United States, which was a key force in helping forge the global effort under President Barack Obama.
We accept that every country, including Jamaica, has the right to decide what is in its best interest.
The move is likely to further polarise the climate issue in next year's United States election with every leading Democratic candidates pledging to immediately re-join the agreement if elected - a process that could take as a little as 30 days. Still, the Trump administration has or is in the process of rolling back more than 85 US environmental regulations.
"Abandoning the Paris Agreement is an abdication of leadership that the vast majority of Americans oppose".
Proponents of the agreement, however, see the U.S. withdrawal as a missed economic opportunity for American business.